19 de mayo de 2015

Aula de inglés jurídico: Commonhold


En una entrega anterior de esta sección, dedicada al Derecho de Propiedad inmobiliaria (Land law), os introdujimos en los conceptos de freehold, leasehold y también el que hoy nos ocupa, el commonhold. La regulación de la propiedad horizontal es bastante reciente en el caso de Reino Unido, imaginamos debido a que es menos habitual residir en bloques de pisos. Pero es un hecho que en nuestro país y muy particularmente en Málaga, son muchos los ciudadanos extranjeros que residen en urbanizaciones, regidas por tanto por nuestra LPH.

En Reino Unido, es tan solo desde 2002 que se regula el denominado commonhold, similar al americano condominium. Con esta regulación, no se pretende crear un nuevo tipo de derecho (estate), adicional a los ya existentes freehold y leasehold. Se trata simplemente de la combinación de la propiedad (freehold) de los elementos privativos (units) y la copropiedad sobre los elementos comunes (common parts).

Tomando como base nuestra legislación y apoyándonos en la terminología de la Commonhold act, os presentamos un breve glosario en inglés que hemos elaborado con algunos de los términos esenciales que tendremos que emplear cuando prestemos servicios a comunidades de propietarios en las que el inglés sea vehículo común de comunicación:

Commonhold                       
A type of property ownership, which allows freehold ownership of individual 'units' (flats, houses and non-residential units) within a building or estate, where the common parts are owned and managed jointly by the unit-holders through a commonhold association.

Commonhold Community Association   
The association is responsible for the upkeep of the common parts and levies a service charge (commonhold assessment) to meet its expenses. The association and its members have the power to enforce the obligations in the commonhold; i.e. members can enforce directly against other members.

Units   
One of at least two parcels of land within the commonhold, the extent of which are defined by the commonhold community statement. A unit may, for example, comprise a flat, bin store, garage or an industrial unit.

Unit holder                       
A person who is entitled to be registered as the proprietor of the freehold estate in a commonhold unit. They can be a sole proprietor or a joint proprietor.

Common parts                   
Every part of the commonhold which is not for the time being shown as a commonhold unit by the commonhold community statement. These are owned by the commonhold association. It will typically include the structure of the building, the corridors, lifts and the staircases, the communal car parks or roads and any other communal areas.

Limited-use areas   
That part of the common parts subject to a restriction as to the person/s that may use it (eg the balcony of a flat).

Memorandum of Association 
Document that contains the name of the association, the address of its registered office, the objects of the association and its powers.

Articles of Association                
The Articles of association provide the rules by which the association is run.

Commonhold Community Statement   
The document which defines by plan and description the extent of the commonhold units and makes provision for the rights and duties of the commonhold association and the unit holders. The CCS must be drafted according to the regulations and must be registered with the commonhold title at the Land Registry.


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